Gas Chromatography and Its Components

Gas Chromatography and Its Components

Gas chromatography is nothing but a laboratory technique, which is used to separates the mixture into individual components. Furthermore, it is used t

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Gas chromatography is nothing but a laboratory technique, which is used to separates the mixture into individual components. Furthermore, it is used to identify the components, although, it is used to measure the concentrations of components.

What thing it separates

Gas Chromatography creates a time separation, so there is no physical separation. Curious to know its procedure? Here you go…

GC does this by passing the vaporized mixture through a tube containing a material that retards some components more than others. This separates the components in time.

What does the Gas Chromatograph System consist of?

A gas chromatographic system consists of:

  • A purified and regulated carrier gas source, which moves the sample through the GC
  • An inlet, which also acts as a vaporizer for liquid samples
  • Next is thecolumn, in which the time separation occurs
  • Another thing is the detector, which responds to the components as they occur by changing its electrical output
  • Data interpretation of some sort

Gas source

The carrier gas must be pure. Contaminants may react with the sample or the column, create spurious peaks, load the detector and raise baselines, and so on. Mostly a high-purity gas with traps for liquid, hydrocarbons, and oxygen is recommended.

During a house gas supply, instead of separate tanks, is used, have traps for each Custom Gas Chromatography and place them as close to the back of the instrument as possible.

The inlet

This introduces the vaporized sample into the carrier gas stream. The utmost common inlets are injection ports and sampling valves.

Injection ports

Liquid samples or handle gas. Over and over again heated to vaporize liquid samples. Gas or liquid syringes are used to insert the sample through a septum into the carrier gas stream.

Sampling valves

The samplingis flushed from a loop that is automatically inserted into the carrier gas stream. Alternative valves are used for liquids and gases because sample volumes are usually quite different. The Sampling valves are often connected to an inlet, especially the split/splitless inlet in the split mode.

The column

At here you will find the separation. As the column type is carefully chosen by the user, many different analyses can be performed using the same equipment.

Furthermost separations are highly temperature-dependent, so the column is placed in a well-controlled oven.

The detector

Here the gas stream from the column, which contains the separated components, passes through a detector. The amount produced from the detector becomes the chromatogram.

Numerous detector types are available, but all perform the same tasks:

  • Produce a stable electrical signal (the baseline) when pure carrier gas (no components) is in the detector.
  • It produces a different signal when a component is passing through the detector.

Data reduction

Gas Chromatograph measurement leaves the detector as an electrical signal. It can be:

  • Noted on a strip chart recorder
  • Managed by a digital integrator
  • Administered by a computer-based data system

Data systems and indicators perform these measurements directly. They are highly recommended because of their reproducibility and sensitivity.


The record of times and sizes must be converted to component names and amounts. All this is done by comparison to times and responses of known samples.It can be done manually, but for speed and accuracy, a data system is best.

Instrument control

Some GC combinations also provide direct control of the GC by the data system computer. This lets the creation of stored methods, which are invoked as needed, and permits a high degree of analysis automation.


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